Tag Archives: Management

Dealing with the Flu and Other Infectious Diseases in the Workplace


FluIQThe cost of the flu on American businesses is staggering. One article states that the flu causes 100 million lost work days each year. Because about two-thirds of the time lost is taken as paid sick days, employers loss over $10 billion in productivity. Meanwhile, the other third costs employees $6.8 billion in lost wages.

This year’s flu season is one of the worst in modern times, according to most news reports. As someone who suffered through it last month (despite a flu shot in September), I am sympathetic to those who get sick. I was fortunate that my schedule allowed me to stay at home for a week, but many workers don’t have that flexibility. What should employers do to manage through flu seasons?

OSHA provides basic recommendations for those who don’t work in healthcare (who obviously need to use greater precautions). In general, OSHA recommends that employees exercise basic hygiene and avoid contact with those who are ill.

OSHA further suggests that employers do the following:

  • Promote vaccination
  • Encourage sick workers to stay home;
  • Promote hand hygiene and cough etiquette
  • Keep the workplace clean
  • Address employee travel concerns.

The CDC and NIOSH have published similar guidelines for employers.

Managers, how does your workplace measure up? At a minimum, employers should maintain high standards of workplace cleanliness and offer vaccinations free or at minimal cost to employees through medical plans. But how does your workplace culture handle employee absences and travel issues?

Too many employers set performance goals that do not tolerate absences that don’t amount to FMLA-covered serious health conditions.

allergy-18656_640For example, I never sought medical treatment for my illness last month and didn’t take any medications other than over-the-counter remedies. Yet for three days I was unable to concentrate on much, and I didn’t have any energy for several days after that, though I did get quite a bit of work done at home during my recuperation.

In fact, about 80% of sick employees go to work for part of all of the days they are sick.

Does your workplace make maximum use of flexible work practices? Granted, some jobs lend themselves more to flexibility than others. But where working from home, reduced or shifting hours, or other flexible arrangements are possible, are your employees encouraged to use them when they are ill? What about when their children are sick?

And do your leave policies permit machine operators, technicians, and others who must be in the workplace enough sick days to avoid spreading illness to others on your premises? Encouraging good attendance is important, but it shouldn’t be the primary measure of successful performance.

One employee in the workplace who misses two or three days from work is preferable to that employee infecting five other employees who then each miss one day. The cascading effect of contagion is much more costly than dealing with sick employees on a more humane and flexible basis. And, as the statistics cited at the top of this post indicate, the total costs are huge.

How do you think employers should balance productivity and flexibility when dealing with sick employees?

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Succession Planning in Family Business (redux)


father daughterI haven’t written about succession planning in family-owned businesses in a while, but the topic continues to interest me. (It was a significant issue in the novel I wrote, Playing the Game.) When should a company founder select a family member as the next CEO and when should the founder look outside the family?

The first piece of advice is not to leave this issue until the founder is in poor health or ready to retire immediately. Any succession plan requires time to implement, and the more time the better.

If family members are interested in the business, then they should be groomed—without making any promises—to acquire the skills and experience necessary to run the company. This may require a rotation through several departments in the business, each lasting at least two to three years. It may even require the heir-apparent getting experience outside the company, either in the same industry or another industry, to broaden his or her skills. In other words, it can take most of a career to prepare the successor to become the next CEO.

It’s also important to keep your options open. Don’t just groom one successor. Find two or three, both family members and non-family members. Having options helps everyone know that the business is being cared for and that the person selected will be fit for the job.

Open communications are critical throughout the entire process. The founder, the potential successors, and other stakeholders (both inside and outside the family) should be able to say at any point, “This isn’t working,” or to outline problems that have developed.

Also, it is best if there are trusted non-family members involved in the assessment as well. An advisor such as an attorney or CPA or executive coach who works with the business regularly can provide input on the strengths and weaknesses of the potential successor that mom or dad may not see clearly.

For more information on issues to consider, see

“5 tips for smooth ownership transitions for family businesses,” by Arne Boudewyn, The Business Journals, Feb 28, 2017

“How Do You Fire a Family Member?” by Gabrielle Pickard-Whitehea, Small Business Trends, Apr 29, 2017

“Succession Planning in a Family Business,” The Wall Street Journal, May 9, 2017

“Is nepotism in the workplace ever appropriate?” by Stan Silverman, The Business Journals, Dec 5, 2017

For other posts I’ve written on succession planning, click here.

When have you had to deal with a difficult succession planning issue, in a family-owned business or otherwise?

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Favorite Firings: Stray Discriminatory Comments by Management Complicate Litigation


operation-540597_1280In the Wolters Kluwer Legal & Regulatory newsletter for December 4, 2017, there were three cases reported that dealt with comments by management personnel about employees. In each case, when the employee sued, the employer was unable to get past a motion to dismiss or a motion for summary judgment. Thus, in all three cases, the company faced lengthy litigation that might have been avoided, had managers been more careful with what they said.

THE FACTS:

In Creese v. District of Columbia, Case No. 16-2440 (RMC), D.C.D.C., Nov. 11, 2017, a corrections officer alleged that he was fired because he was not “manly” enough. His supervisor had made a few comments such as, “[n]o pretty boys needed in jail, so you need to take your earrings out.” The judge found that plaintiff produced enough evidence of impermissible gender stereotyping to survive a motion to dismiss his Title VII and Section 1983 claims.

In Sestak v. Northwestern Memorial Healthcare, Case No. 16-C-6354, N.D. Ill., Nov. 28, 2017, plaintiff Sestak, a labor and delivery nurse, alleged age discrimination after she was discharged for cause. She claimed that an unidentified individual stated that “older nurses would have difficulty” complying with new guidelines because older nurses “are too slow and spend too much time with patients” and that one of her supervisors stated that “older nurses’ often have difficulty understanding when the mother and baby become separate patients.” The court denied the employer’s motion for summary judgment.

In Carter v. A&E Supported Living, Inc., Case No. 16-00574-N, S.D. Ala., Nov. 29, 2017, a nurse was removed from the shift schedule at a group home for intellectually disabled individuals and then sued for pregnancy discrimination. She cited supervisors’ comments to her as evidence that she was removed from her work schedule because of her pregnancy and/or the related “high risk” conditions that the supervisors believed her pregnancy presented. One supervisor stated plaintiff “was at risk to be hurt and [she] didn’t want that for her or her unborn child, for her baby; nor did [she] want to put the people that [the employer] serve at risk…” Plaintiff was required to provide medical documentation that it was safe for her and her unborn child for her to perform the duties of her position. The judge denied the defendant’s motion for summary judgment.

THE MORAL:

The general legal standard is that stray comments in the workplace do not automatically lead to violations of the discrimination laws. However, they can be evidence of a discriminatory intent. And, of course, the more egregious and frequent the remarks, the more likely courts are to find liability. I’ve written other posts (see here and here and here) about how supervisory comments can get their employers into trouble.

In each of these cases, the employer put forth nondiscriminatory reasons for the actions taken against the employee. But the existence of the supervisors’ comments about pregnancy or gender or age complicated the cases enough to let the judges refuse to grant the defendants’ dispositive motions. The employers may end up winning these cases, but they face lengthy and expensive litigation before they do. Settling the cases may prove to be the better option.

Moreover, in the environment we face today, with heightened sensitivity toward sexual harassment and discriminatory remarks, employers would be well advised to re-emphasize the need to avoid even casual comments about employees’ health, appearance, and any other topics that might touch on a protected status.

It’s a shame that we must be so careful in the workplace and avoid many topics of everyday conversation, but it’s the safest course. As demonstrated by these three cases decided by different courts in recent weeks, supervisory comments continue to present litigation challenges to employers. It is best to involve Human Resources and lawyers if there is any question about what topics are permissible to discuss.

What’s your opinion on the current state of conversation in the workplace?

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Filed under Diversity, Human Resources, Law, Management, Workplace

Alpha Dogs and Leadership


dogs-1231010_1280Because this blog was on hiatus all summer, I didn’t comment on the political stalemates and morasses during those months. And I’m not going to comment directly on the ongoing issues today. But what I saw over the summer—and what I continue to see this fall—reminds me of a situation I encountered many years ago involving “alpha dogs” in a corporate setting.

My work group attended a gender diversity program sometime in the mid-1990s. I was not in management at the time; I was one of several individual contributors who ranged widely in seniority. I was in the middle of the pack at the time.

One of the comments about gender differences that the facilitator made during this gender diversity session was that men often try to be the “alpha dog” in a meeting by one-upping the other men in the room. Women, on the other hand, care less if they are seen as the highest power in the room. (Keep in mind that this program took place decades before Sheryl Sandberg’s “Lean In” philosophy became vogue.)

I might have forgotten this “alpha dog” comment, except that a few days after the diversity program, I was talking about it with a male colleague, one of the more senior employees in our group. He freely admitted, “That’s why I have problems with [our male boss]. He and I both want to be the alpha dog.”

I thought about it. He was right—these two men did both try to be top dog. And trying to be the alpha dog wasn’t working for my colleague, because he didn’t have the corporate authority to pull it off. He wasn’t the boss, but he often tried to be.

I made a deliberate decision. As a fairly young and introverted female, seeking to be the alpha dog wasn’t going to work for me either. Therefore, I would consciously act like I was NOT the alpha dog. I would not overtly try to one-up other people I encountered in the workplace. I would defer to others intentionally. I would seek to provide good service to my colleagues and clients, rather than to command them. That didn’t mean letting others step all over me, but it did mean not being arrogant or seeking top billing on projects.

I’ve written before about “servant leadership,” a philosophy that advocates leading by serving others. I didn’t hear of that concept until ten or more years after the 1990s gender diversity program, but it resonated with me when I learned about it.

How did servant leadership work for me?

Generally, it worked well, at least through the middle years in my career. Over time, there were more and more times when I had to take command and make decisions. And occasionally, I didn’t get as much credit for my work as I thought I should have. But those times were less frequent than one might expect.

However, there were times after I moved into senior corporate roles when more of a command approach might have worked better. There were definitely people—mostly men, but a few women—who took advantage of my understated approach or who thought me weak. I could usually deflect them by being the best prepared person in the room, but there were a few jerks who only understood power, who only thought highly of other “alpha dogs” and sought to be the “alpha dog” with everyone except the CEO. They were never my favorite people, but sometimes I did have to flex my style to deal with them effectively.

dogs-1231008_640Unfortunately, many of today’s leaders—particularly the partisans on both sides of the aisle in Washington—seem to be of the “alpha dog” mentality. One-up-man-ship is all they understand. And so our nation has become increasingly polarized. If more of them would exercise servant leadership, we would all be better off.

What leadership style have you generally used? When have you had to flex your style?

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How to Avoid Burnout When There’s Always Too Much Work


work-2196609_640Memorial Day weekend is the traditional beginning of summer. In many workplaces the pace slows during the summer months—maybe it slows a little, maybe it slows a lot. For employees who are burned out, the more relaxed pace might help.

Still, in today’s 24/7 world, the slowdown of summer might not be enough. In fact, one of my most stressful times as an employee was one July and August when I was assigned to defend a major lawsuit. I had to take on this new work even though none of my existing work had gone away.

After a few weeks, I realized I couldn’t juggle the caseload I had. I was leaving the office completely frustrated every evening. Finally, I talked to my department head about how to reallocate the workload.

It was that or quit. I was that burned out.

A recent article in Fortune, “The Solution to Avoiding Burnout That Nobody Tells You,” by Laura Chambers, published May 10, 2017, tells of a time when the author’s supervisor told her she would have to learn to drop some balls to avoid burnout. This is counterintuitive for most high-performing employees.

Actually, author Laura Chambers describes a more nuanced approach to managing the workload than simply not doing projects. She describes two kinds of employees, the burnouts and the droppers, and says neither is ideal.

She says that when there’s too much work to accomplish, the best approach is to become a “communicating prioritizer.” She suggests identifying what you believe the top priorities to be, discussing them with your supervisor and team to be sure there is agreement on what the priorities are, then focusing on the highest priorities.

As a manager, Ms. Chambers says about her staff:

“When they communicate their priorities, it shows me that they’re on their game, they’re confident about where they’re headed, and I know I can count on them delivering with confidence. It also demonstrates that they’re managing their own work-life balance, rather than relying on someone else to manage it for them.”

Turns out, I didn’t do so badly in going to my manager to discuss what I could do and what I couldn’t. I was communicating, as Ms. Chambers recommends. However, in retrospect, I see that if I had offered more proactive suggestions myself on how to reallocate the work, I might have done better. My manager and I worked it out, but I put most of the burden of prioritizing on him.

And perhaps Ms. Chambers’s manager could have done better by helping her prioritize than by telling her to drop some balls.

How have you managed periods of burnout in your career?

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Lessons Learned in Office Remodels and Relocations


beige-316396_640Over the years, I’ve been involved in two corporate department remodels, once as one of the primary designers of the new office space, and the other time as a department chair when members of my staff worked on the layout and logistics. Neither was an enjoyable experience, but I learned important lessons along the way. Here are my primary takeaways:

1. Have size and space guidelines, but don’t be rigid

One of the remodels involved attorneys, who insisted they needed private offices because of attorney/client privilege issues. But some of the lawyers were not high enough in the corporate hierarchy to warrant private offices in the corporate guidelines. The attorneys won that argument.

In the other remodel, some Human Resources managers received private offices and others at the same pay grade did not. The decisions rested on who spent significant time counseling employees. Those who did not get private offices had access to small conference room near their cubicles.

The biggest issues actually involved administrative personnel, some of whom dealt with significant amounts of paper and needed more space than the guidelines permitted. In retrospect, more individuality would have been a good thing.

With today’s move away from cubicles to more open space environments, these issues may become even more significant. Have a philosophy, but allow for exceptions when warranted.

2. Keep technology needs in mind

The legal office redesign I worked on came at a time when personal computers were just beginning to be used. Some lawyers were technologically adept, and others had never used a PC. But we mandated space, equipment, and Ethernet connectivity for everyone.

In both of the remodels I was involved with, file storage was a critical need. Over time, the move to paperless work environments are likely to accelerate. These days, large monitors, wi-fi access, or portable tablets may be the critical features necessary for efficiency.

But what will the technology of the future require? Involve your IT personnel in anticipating what your office will need in the next five years at least . . . the next decade if you can see that far into the future.

3. Natural light is important for morale

One of my departments moved to space that was underground. We did everything we could with pale colored walls and good lighting, but we couldn’t avoid the feeling that we worked in a cave.

The other department moved from underground space to space with windows. The temptation was to put managerial offices against the windows, but we avoided that. We kept the windows open to all, which made our support personnel feel much more valued. Those managers who had enclosed offices had to step outside to get a view (which was only of a parking garage anyway), which helped keep them less isolated from their staff.

4. Give your planning team leeway to make decisions

There are a myriad of daily decisions involved in relocating a department. How to lay out the space, what color paint, fabrics for the furniture, just to name a few. The planning team should be empowered to make most of these decisions—or at least to narrow the options. That’s why they’re on the team.

If the department head reserves all decisions for himself or herself, the planning team will end up demoralized, management time will be wasted, and the plan will be idiosyncratic and unlikely to stand the test of time.

5. Involve all employees in the process

Just because there is a planning team doesn’t mean that other employees should have no say in the process. Hold a kick-off meeting where everyone can voice opinions. It will help the remodel team to know which issues are emotional for employees.

And have a few milestone meetings or send out periodic updates to the whole department. Keep people informed on the progress and timeline and what decisions have been made to date.

beige-316395_6406. Make it fun

One of the planning teams in our remodel called themselves the “MOO-ve” team. They adopted a cow logo which they included on all their communications. At least we had something to laugh about as we sorted through forty-plus years of files before the department relocated.

Those are six lessons I learned during my work on office relocations. Here’s an article with another list of lessons learned. And for articles on the nitty-gritty of planning an office remodel, see here and here.

What have you learned when relocating an office?

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How Do I Get My Priorities Accomplished? Integrating the Ivy Lee Method and Real Life


2a83xpt89bWe are one-quarter through 2017. Have you accomplished 25% of your goals for the year? Are you on track to complete your goals? If not, you may be working on the wrong things. So how do we make ourselves more productive? How do we stay focused on our highest priorities?

There are many consultants and coaches who purport to have systems. One such system is the Ivy Lee Method (for more, see here and here), which says to spend a few minutes at the end of each day determining the six most important things to accomplish the next day. This methodology requires discipline to limit yourself to six items. Then prioritize those six items in order of importance.

At the start of the next day, begin with the most important task, and do not do anything else until it is finished. Then move on to the second task. And so forth, to see how far on the six items you can get, always completing each item before moving on to a lower priority item.

Put your unfinished items on the list of six for the next day, unless they are of lower priority than six other items to be accomplished the next day.

Do this every day.

No more than six items. Work the list in order of priority. Every day.

In theory, this system is good. But most of us have interruptions we cannot avoid. Or meetings we have to attend. We do not control our time sufficiently to work through one item on the list to completion before we must move on to something else.

The solution, I think, is to wrest back control of our time to the maximum extent we can. If you’ve tried the Ivy Lee method or some other process, and it isn’t working for you, here are some specific solutions:

1. Reduce your list of daily priorities to four or five items. There is no magic to the number six. Maybe on days when you know you have only a little time available, accomplishing one or two tasks is all that is reasonable. But make those tasks count—still choose your most important priorities.

2. Cut the items on your list into smaller chunks, and prioritize the chunks. Instead of an item like “contact all my stakeholders,” you list each phone call you need to make in order of priority. Most significant projects take a long time to accomplish. What is the one step that will move the project forward most significantly? Put that step on your priority list for the next day.

3. Make sure you have some time on your calendar each day for solitary work. Eliminate meetings where possible. Reserve time on your calendar. If you have an assistant who schedules your time, make sure your assistant knows your solitary time is inviolable. (Except, perhaps, for your spouse or the CEO.)

4. Delegate projects to others, or eliminate them. If certain projects are never making it to your list of six priorities, then perhaps they should not be among your goals for the year. Discuss them with your manager and make sure the two of you are in agreement on how you are prioritizing them.

5. Reserve time for interruptions. There will be times when your managers or external authorities impose new priorities on you. In my own situation, I often found that my inviolate work time was violated by my managers or high-maintenance clients. Then it became a matter of reserving even more time, so that I had time for the interruptions as well as the high-priority tasks for the day.

Planning is critical to getting things done. So make your plan work for you. And remember, when planning your discretionary time, you are accountable for what you do and what you don’t do.

When have you had difficulty planning and prioritizing?

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